Document Type : Review Article
Department of Infectious Disease, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Department of Infectious Disease, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV–1) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HIV-1/HTLV) co-infection is a serious health problem worldwide, especially in endemic areas and vulnerable subjects like intravenous drug abusers. This is due to the fact that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells are the primary targets of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, respectively. The influence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 on CD4+ count can shortened or prolong progression to AIDS and the development of more clinical complications. Opportunistic infections may differ between HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 co-infection subjects. Several epidemiologic studies have discussed molecular bases of HIV-1/HTLV co-infection, including cytokine and chemokine mediated pathways; however, they have yielded discrepant results.