Impact of Leadership Style on Patient Safety Culture in the Department of Radiodiagnosis

Document Type : Original Article


1 Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Anambra State ,Nigeria.

2 Uyo Teaching Hospital Cross River, Nigeria.

3 Nnamdi Azikiwe University Faculty of Health sciences and Technology, Okofia campus NNewi.

4 Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka


Background: Healthcare organisation is a high reliability establishment hence, tackles safety on daily basis. To achieve the desired level of safety, leaders need to work and behave in a way to make it a priority. This is because leadership principles have a relationship with patient safety culture.
Objective: To assess the impact of leadership style on patient safety culture in Radiodiagnosis.
Materials and Method: This study was carried out among 80 health workers in Radiodiagnostic department of two tertiary health institutions. Two adopted questionnaires were used to collect data. Leadership style was assessed from subordinates’ perspective so questionnaires on leadership style were administered to 76 out of the 80 enrollees; excluding to 4 leaders in both units of the study areas. All enrollees were given questionnaires on patient safety culture to fill. The impact of leadership styles on patient safety culture was determined using Chi-square test of association,
Results: Transformational and lassiez faire leadership styles have no significant association with all the domains of patient safety culture. Transactional leadership style shows a significant association with two domains of patient safety culture. However, it does not have a significant association with other domains of patient safety culture. An overall chi-square analysis shows that no significant association exists between patient safety culture and transformational (p= 0.156), transactional (p= 0.156) and lassiez faire (p= 0.659) leadership styles.
Conclusion: There is no significant association between any of the leadership styles and culture of patient safety.
Keywords: Leadership, Patient, safety culture, Radiodiagnosis, Health Institution.


  1. Momodou B – Measuring the current trend of patient safety culture in The Gambia hospital. An MSc thesis 2012. Retrieved: 25/8/15.
  2. Garbutt J, Waterman AD, Kapp JM, Dungaun W C, Lenenison W, Fraser V & Gallagher TH. Lost opportunities: How physicians communicate about  medical errors. J. Health affiliation, 2008; 27(1); 246-55.
  3. Ketring SPWhite JP - Developing a systemwide approach to patient safety: the first  year. J. Joint Comm. Qual. Impr. 2002; 28(6):287-295.
  4. Obinna C. Patient safety in Nigeria is non-negotiable. Available at:  www., 2011 (Retrieved: 23/6/15).
  5. Gadd S, Collins, AM (2002).  Safety Culture: A review of the literature HSL/2002/25. Sheffield: Health & Safety Laboratory p.3. Available at:  www. research/ hsl (Retrieved: 15/9/2015).
  6. Ring L. Leadership and patient safety: A Review of Literature. J. of Nursing Regulation 2013; 14(10): 1-60
  7. Mcfadden KL, Ilenegen SC, Gowenll CR. The safety chain: Transformational leadership’s effects on patient safety culture, initiatives outcomes. J. of operation manag. 2009; 27(5): 390-404.
  8. Leonard M,   Frankel – How can a leader influence safety culture. Thoughtful paper, 2012.
  9. Joint commission board – The essential role of leadership in developing safety culture. Sentinel event; 57: 1-8.
  10. Clarke JK. The role of leaders of healthcare organisation in patient safety. Am. J. of Med. Qual 2007; 22(5): 311-18. 
  11. Stewart K. Unprofessional behaviour and patient safety. The Int. J of clini. Leadership 2011; 17: 93-101.
  12. Nyeberg A, Bernin P, Theorell T (2005) - Impact of leadership on the health of  subordinates. Printed at ElandersGotab Stockholm, Sweden by National Institute for work and life: pp 97-102.
  13. Bass B, Riggio RE. Transformational leadership, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Mahwah. NJ. International Journal of Conflict Management, 2009; 20(4): 340-54
  14. Doucet O, Poitras J. the impact of leadership on workplace conflict. Int. J. of  Conflict Manage 2009; 20(4): 340-54. 
  15. Solvejg K, Karl BC, Jan M. Strengthening leadership as a catalyst for enhanced patient safety culture: a repeated cross-sectional experimental study. BMJ, 2016. Doi: 10.1136/ bmjopen-2015-010180
  16. Wagner LM, Capezuti E, Rice JC .Nurses perception of safety culture in long term care settings. J. of nursing scholarship 2009; 41(2): 184-92.
  17. Jarret MP. Patient safety and leadership: Do you walk the walk? J. of healthcare manag. 2017; 62(2): 88-92.
  18. Murphy L. Leadership, nursing and patient safety within a hospital based learning organisations. A PhD thesis, 2016. http:??
  19. Tejada MT, Scandura TR, Pillai R. The multifactor leadership questionnaire revisited: Pyschometric properties and recommendations. The Leadership Quaterly J, 2001; 12: 31-52.
  20. Squires M, Tourangeau A, Laschinger HK, Doran D. The link between leadership and safety outcomes in hospitals. J. of Nurs. Manag, 2010; 18, 914-925.  doi:10.1111/j.1365-2834. 2010. 01181x
  21. Kesseler O. Leadership, safety culture and patient safety culture in hospitals: In search of evidence. BMC healthcare serv. research 2014; 14(supp 2): 64.