1Patient Safety Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2Department of Emergency, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Introduction: The management of injured patients is a critical issue in pre-hospital and emergency departments. Trauma victims are usually young and the injuries may lead to mortality or severe morbidities. The severity of injury can be estimated by observing the anatomic and physiologic evidences. This estimation may help to triage the patient properly, transfer to the appropriate trauma center, and predict the needed resources and the outcome of the patients. Many attempts have been made and different scoring systems have been introduced. In this article we are going to review these scoring systems with a focus on Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS). ISS is an anatomically based ordinal scale, with a range of 1-75. For calculating the ISS, first the 9 AIS body regions are grouped into six: head and neck, face, chest and thoracic spine, abdominal and pelvic organs and abdominal spine, limbs and pelvic girdle, extra. Then the sum of the squares of the AIS for the three most severely body regions calculated.ost causes of AFE in adult and elderly patients with most fatality for viral agents.