1Department of Infectious Disease, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
2Department of Infectious Disease, Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of medical sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV–1) and human T-cell leukemia virus (HIV-1/HTLV) co-infection is a serious health problem worldwide, especially in endemic areas and vulnerable subjects like intravenous drug abusers. This is due to the fact that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells are the primary targets of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, respectively. The influence of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 on CD4+ count can shortened or prolong progression to AIDS and the development of more clinical complications. Opportunistic infections may differ between HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 co-infection subjects. Several epidemiologic studies have discussed molecular bases of HIV-1/HTLV co-infection, including cytokine and chemokine mediated pathways; however, they have yielded discrepant results.